Selection Of Villages For J.F.M.C./E.D.C./P.S.S. Activities

Selection approach
The target villages will be selected in such a way that the cluster approach can be applied. As explained earlier, the Project will create 45 clusters. The revenue village will be the basic unit for the establishment of JFMCs, EDCs, and PSS?s. In a typical cluster, four villages will be selected: one IIV and three SEVs. There will be 45 IIVs and 135 SEVs, or 180 villages in total. The range established by the Territorial Circle of the Forest Department will be the basis of creating village clusters. The range is the closest effective administrative unit to the cluster to be created through this component.

First, the number of clusters to be created in each range will be determined. If there are less than 15 villages in a range, one cluster will be created. If there are 15 to 24 villages in a range, two clusters will be created. In some ranges there may be more than 24 villages, in which case three clusters will be created. The 45 target clusters will be allocated among the 27 ranges in this way. However, because the number of revenue villages and the population of each cluster vary widely, final adjustments to the composition of clusters will be made during the early stage of the Project. 

Second, the 45 IIVs will be selected. In each range, all revenue villages will be considered and ranked according to a set of criteria set by the Project. In each range, IIVs will be ranked and selected until the allocated number of clusters, or IIVs, is fulfilled.

Third, the clusters will be formed in each range. In ranges that are allocated one cluster, all the villages in the range will form a single cluster. In other ranges, all the villages in the range will be put into several clusters according to the number of clusters allocated to the range, with an IIV and several surrounding villages in each cluster. The clusters will be formed in such a way that the IIV will be located in the centre of the cluster to the extent possible so that the spread effect of interventions to the surrounding villages is maximized. 

Fourth, the 135 SEVs will be selected. In each cluster, three villages on average will be selected after carrying out activities for about a year in the IIV. In each cluster, one SEV is expected to be added every year after one year of conducting activities in the IIV. SEVs will basically be selected using the same criteria as those used for the selection of IIVs. 

Selection criteria
The initial intervention villages will be decided by the objective scoring method by using the following negative and positive criteria, and the highest scoring villages among the villages which showed the willingness to participate in the JFM activities will be selected for treatment. Again the following year, the potential target villages will be decided by scoring method, and the spread effect villages will be selected randomly from the several villages which meet the benchmark aggregate score from the surrounding initial intervention village in the cluster. In case the cluster does not identify the successful implementation of initial intervention villages, or cannot identify spread effect villages due to low score or low incentive for participation, the concerned cluster may be dropped from the project intervention. In order to examine the effectiveness of this cluster approach on JFMC/EDC/PSS activities, the impact evaluation methodology might be applied.

Mentioned below is the criteria for the villages that should not be selected:
  • Villages with low dependence on forests (The meaning of dependence should be defined when adopting this criterion during the execution of the Project.);
  • Villages with poor governance or conflicts related to natural resources or land; and
  • Villages that have received or are expected to receive a substantial budget for any government projects such as the Model Village for Integrated Farming.

In addition, those villages that already have a JFMC, EDC or PSS, especially those that have received or are expected to receive a substantial budget for their activities, should be given lower priority, as the Project can only intervene in a limited number of villages. Therefore, priority should be given to the villages that have not yet experienced major government interventions. However, the Project should not deny including those villages already covered by JFMC, EDC or PSS if they express their strong will to be involved in joint forest and wildlife management under the Project.

Suggested selection criteria are as follows. However, these selection criteria should be elaborated in quantitative manner before the actual selection process will be taken place.
  • The village demonstrates strong willingness to engage in joint forest and wildlife management.
  • The village is in or surrounded by forests with high incidence of forest and/or wildlife offences.
  • The village is in or surrounded by forests with high incidence of forest fire.
  • The village has high dependence on forests.
  • The village is close to degraded forests.
  • The village has high prevalence of poverty.
  • The village has good linkages with other villages, eg, the village has a market and/or other facilities and services that attract people from surrounding villages.

In addition, the selection criteria and priority areas for JFM given in the working plans should be considered if they are completed by the time of selection.

For villages that are already have a JFMC, EDC or PSS, the following criteria can be added. 
  • The JFMC, EDC or PSS has strong leadership.
  • The JFMC, EDC or PSS demonstrates willingness to perform better.
  • The JFMC, EDC or PSS has a good performance record of activities in forest and/or wildlife protection and management.